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《Designing Tasks for the Communicative Classroom---交际课堂的任务设计》读书笔记
作者:管理员    来源:威廉希尔中文网站   发布时间:2014-11-11 14:46:04   

教学任务的设计是语言教学中的一个重要环节,成功的任务设计可以为课堂增添活力,提高学生兴趣,促进教学效果。如今,在信息发展的高速时代,英语教学越来越重视培养学生的语言运用能力、口语和书面语的交际能力,教师也开始努力探索在课堂中运用交际任务来提高学生的交际能力。但在实际的教学工作中,教师设计的交际任务在实施过程中有一些是达不到预期效果的,这是因为其设计中有许多因素需要考虑。今年暑假,我阅读了《Designing Tasks for the Communicative Classroom》David Nunan, Cambridge University Press/人民教育出版社, 1989/2000,并对英语教学中交际任务设计的一些方法进行了记录与思考。
       这是一本任务教学的学术著作,适用于对任务教学理解不够深入、把握不够清晰的教师阅读。有价值的还有其附录,具体案例(包括一个香港实例)。此书的作者亲自实践的一个技能附录对于通过任务了解技能很有帮助,是入门的必读内容。这本书论述外语教学中交际学习任务(tasks)的设计与开发,从多个角度探析了外语交际学习任务的性质、构成、作用与开发。在为期一年的七年级英语教学过程中,我发现交际课堂(听-说课)任务时学生将已学知识用自身目的语进行理解,操练和交流,着重用所学的语言知识进行意义交流的课堂活动。一个完整的课堂任务完成应包括任务设计,课堂实施和课堂评估三个环节,所以任务设计是任务成功与否的先决条件,也是重中之重。在《Designing Tasks for the Communicative Classroom》我读到这样一些重要信息。
P14
I shall use ‘syllabus’ to refer to the selecting and grading of content, and ‘curriculum’ more widely to refer to all aspects of planning, implementing, evaluating and managing and educational programme.

p23
听力理解分为两种:“交互的听(reciprocal listening)”,“非交互的听(non-reciprocal listening)”。
交互的听指的是那些听者有机会与说者互动、并就互动的内容进行商谈的听力理解任务。
非交互的听指的是那些信息传递只是单向的(从说者到听者)听力理解任务,诸如听收音机或正式演讲之类。

p26
…successful listening involves:
-- skills in segmenting the stream of speech into meaningful words and phrases;
-- recognizing word classes;
-- relating the incoming messages to one’s own background knowledge;
-- identifying the rhetorical and functional intent of an utterance or parts of an aural text;
-- interpreting rhythm, stress and intonation to identify information focus and emotional/ attitudinal tone;
-- extracting gist/essential information from longer aural texts without necessarily understanding every word
(可译为)成功的听包括:
--将话语流分解成有意义的词汇与短语的技能;
--认知词类;
--找出传入话语与自身背景知识的关联;
--分辨出话语内容或者语音文本的一部分的修辞与功能意图;
--通过理解节奏、重音、语调而分别出信息重点和情感/态度;
--从长篇语音文本中提炼出中心/基本信息而不必理解每个词汇。
(这属于语言运用能力,说、读、写方面以后再做笔记)

p32
…successful oral communication involves developing:(成功的说)
-- the ability to articulate phonological features of the language comprehensibly;
-- mastery of stress, rhythm, intonation patterns;
-- an acceptable degree of fluency;
-- transactional and interpersonal skills;
-- conversational listening skills (successful conversations require good listeners as well as good speakers);
-- skills in knowing about and negotiating purposes for conversations;
-- using appropriate conversational formulae and fillers.

p41
事实上,真实世界的任务和教学性的任务并不是固定不变的,恰恰相反,而是一个连续体。有些任务很真实,但对于学生可能并不真实,如Make a formal introduction对于小孩子来说就并不真实。有些任务是教学性的,可在真实生活中也会用到,如Listen to an aural text and write a sentence restating the gist.然而有些任务既是真实世界的,又具有教学性,如Listen to the weather forecast for tomorrow and write a note to a friend telling about the weather.
真实世界的很多任务通常都是要经过一定的改写和调整才能进行课堂。根据Widdowson的观点,我们可以把这一特性的真实世界任务称之为语言发展的‘排练’途径。
p49
Clark1987年指出:
任务的目的分为四类:交际的、社会文化的、学习如何学习的、语言和文化认知的。

P196-202
Graded activities for the four macroskills
This is adapted from an unpublished seven-level syllabus developed by the author (i.e. David Nunan) for an ESL curriculum.

Listening (听的技能设计)
Level 1
-- distinguish between English and other language
-- listen to short aural texts and indicate (e.g. by putting up hand) when core vocabulary items are heard
-- identify the number and gender of interlocutors
-- comprehend and carry out the following instructions: point to, touch, stand up, sit down, go to …, pick up, put down
-- comprehend requests for personal details (name, age, address)
-- comprehend requests for the identification of people and things
-- listen to simple descriptions of common objects (e.g. those found in the classroom and/or immediate environment) and identify these non-verbally (e.g. by drawing a picture)
-- identify letters of the alphabet and numbers to fifty including ten/teen contrasts
-- listen to and identify the time
Level 2
-- identify core vocabulary items when encountered in a variety of aural texts
-- comprehend and carry out a sequence of two to three instructions
-- comprehend requests for details about family and friends
-- comprehend requests for identification of people and things
-- listen to simple descriptions of actions and scenes and identify these non-verbally (e.g. by finding a picture, numbering pictures in the order in which they are described)
-- given contextual/pictorial support, can comprehend simple descriptions
-- identify ordinal numbers 1-10 (i.e. the first – the tenth, --kwlu)
-- listen to and identify fays of the week, months and dates
Level 3
-- identify core vocabulary items when encountered in a variety of aural texts
-- comprehend and carry out a sequence of four to five instructions
-- develop factual discrimination skills by listening to a passage and identifying true-false statements relating to the passage
-- comprehend requests for factual information relating to topic areas
-- listen to a short aural text and transform the information by presenting it in a different form (e.g. by completing a table or diagram)

Speaking and oral interaction(说的技能设计)
Level 1
-- name common objects
-- give personal details such as name, age and address
-- memorise and recite songs and rhymes in chorus
-- take part in short, contextualised dialogues
-- give simple (single clause) descriptions of common objects
-- request goods and objects
-- make statements of ability about self and others
Level 2
-- describe family and friends (e.g. refer to age, relationship, size, weight, hair and eye colouring)
-- recite songs and rhymes in chorus and individually
-- ask and make statements about the likes of self and others
-- spell out words from core vocabulary list, and say words when they are spelled out
-- answer questions/give details of simple descriptions following an aural presentation
-- request details about the family and friends of others using cue words
-- make short (one to tow sentence) statements on familiar topics using cue words
-- talk about regularly occurring activities
-- compute quantities and money in English
-- tell the time in hours and half hours
Level 3
-- answer questions/give details following an aural presentation
-- make short (three or four sentence) statements on familiar topics
-- following a model, make a series of linked statements about a picture, map, chart or diagram
-- work in pairs/small groups to share information and solve a problem
-- tell the time using fractions of an hour
-- describe a short sequence of pass events using sentence cues
-- make complete statements from sentence cues given appropriate contextual support
-- make comparisons between physical objects and entities
-- use conversational formulae for greeting and leavetaking
 
    总体感受:任务设计应注重语言形式和功能的结合,对初中七、八年级的学生来说,要求其掌握语言形式的基础上,通过系列任务的训练,能够自己进行推理和演绎而理解语言的功能,并在交际中进行真实运用。身为教师,在设计学习单元或模块中的一系列任务时,要注意相互依存,层层深入。教学任务的设计要由简到繁、由易到难逐步发展,而且接受性任务先于创造性任务,即听、读任务先于说、写任务。通过任务的层层递进,使学生的语言能力逐步得到提高。


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